[WML-Source: Windows_and_Hotkeys.wml][TOC][Part00]

[chapter]

[section]Blender windows - general introduction

This section describes the general functions of the mouse and keyboard, both of which work uniformly throughout the Blender interface. Each Blender window also offers a number of specific options. These options are described in the following sections.

[subsection]The Mouse

Each time you place the mouse cursor over the edge of a Blender window, the mouse cursor changes shape. When this happens, the following mouse keys are activated:

[point]LeftMouse (hold-move)

Drag the window edge horizontally or vertically. The window edge always moves in increments of 4 pixels, making it relatively easy to move two window edges so that they are precisely adjacent to each other, thus joining them.

[point]MiddleMouse or Right Mouse

A PopupMenu prompts for "Split Area" or "Join Areas".

  [images/SplitJoinPopup.tga]

Choosing "Split Area", Blender allows you to indicate the exact split point or to cancel "split" by pressing ESC. "Split" divides the window into two windows, creating an exact copy of the original window.

Choosing "Join Areas", Windows with a shared edge are joined if possible. The active Window remains.

If there is no Header in the Window, the PopupMenu contains also the item "Add Header".

[point]The Window Header

Blender window headers offer the following extra options in combination with mouse keys:

The header from a 3DWindow  [images/3DHeader.tga]

[point]LeftMouse on the header

The entire Blender window pops to the foreground.

[point]CTRL+LeftMouse on the header

The entire Blender window pops to the background.

[point]MiddleMouse (hold-move) on the header

If the Blender window is not wide enough to display the entire header, the MiddleMouse key can be used to horizontally shift the header.

[point]RightMouse on the header

A PopupMenu appears asking for "Top", "Bottom" or "No Header". That way the header can be moved to the top or the bottom of the Blender window or can be hidden.

  [images/HeaderPopup.tga]

You can add a header to a Window by pressing the middle Mouse over an edge of a headerless Window.

[subsection]Window HotKeys

Certain window managers also use the following hotkeys. So ALT-CTRL can be substituted for CTRL to perform the functions described below.

[point]CTRL+LEFTARROW

Go to the previous Screen.

[point]CTRL+RIGHTARROW

Go to the next Screen.

[point]CTRL+UPARROW or CTRL+DOWNARROW

Maximise the window or return to the previous window display size.

[point]SHIFT+F4

Change the window to a DataView

[point]SHIFT+F5

Change the window to a 3DWindow

[point]SHIFT+F6

Change the window to an IpoWindow

[point]SHIFT+F7

Change the window to a ButtonsWindow

[point]SHIFT+F8

Change the window to a SequenceWindow

[point]SHIFT+F9

Change the window to an OopsWindow

[point]SHIFT+F10

Change the window to an ImageWindow

[point]SHIFT+F11

Change the window to a TextWindow

[point]SHIFT+F12

Change the window to a SoundWindow

[subsection]Universal HotKeys

The following HotKeys work uniformly in all Blender windows:

[point]ESCKEY

[point]SPACEKEY

Open the main menu of Blender, the Toolbox.

[point]TABKEY

Start or quit EditMode.

[point]F1KEY

Loads a Blender file. Changes the window to a FileWindow.

[point]SHIFT+F1

Appends parts from other files, or loads as Library-data. Changes the window to a FileWindow, making Blender files accessible as a directory.

[point]F2KEY

Writes a Blender file. Change the window to a FileWindow.

[point]SHIFT+F2KEY

Exports the scene as a DXF file

[point]CTRL+F2KEY

Exports the scene as a VRML1 file

[point]F3KEY

Writes a picture (if a picture has been rendered). The fileformat is as indicated in the DisplayButtons. The window becomes a FileWindow.

[point]CTRL+F3KEY

Saves a screendump of the active window. The fileformat is as indicated in the DisplayButtons. The window becomes a FileWindow.

[point]SHIFT+CTRL+F3KEY

Saves a screendump of the whole Blender screen. The fileformat is as indicated in the DisplayButtons. The window becomes a FileWindow.

[point]F4KEY

Displays the LampButtons (if a ButtonsWindow is available).

[point]F5KEY

Displays the MaterialButtons (if a ButtonsWindow is available).

[point]F6KEY

Displays the TextureButtons (if a ButtonsWindow is available).

[point]F7KEY

Displays the AnimButtons (if a ButtonsWindow is available).

[point]F8KEY

Displays the RealtimeButtons (if a ButtonsWindow is available).

[point]F9KEY

Displays the EditButtons (if a ButtonsWindow is available).

[point]F10KEY

Displays the DisplayButtons (if a ButtonsWindow is available).

[point]F11KEY

Hides or shows the render window.

[point]F12KEY

Starts the rendering of the active camera.

[point]LEFTARROW

Go to the previous frame.

[point]SHIFT+LEFTARROW

Go to the first frame.

[point]RIGHTARROW

Go to the next frame.

[point]SHIFT+LEFTARROW

Go to the last frame.

[point]UPARROW

Go forward 10 frames.

[point]DOWNARROW

Go back 10 frames.

[point]ALT+A

Change the current Blender window to Animation Playback mode. The cursor changes to a counter.

[point]ALT-SHIFT+A

The current window, plus all 3DWindows go into Animation Playback mode.

[point]ALT+E

Start or leave EditMode.

[point]IKEY

Insert Key menu. This menu differs from window to window.

[point]JKEY

Toggle the render buffers. Blender allows you to retain two different rendered pictures in memory.

[point]NKEY

Number buttons. These buttons differ depending on the type of Blender window. Numeric information for the active selection can be visualised and specified using these buttons.

[point]CTRL+O

Opens the last saved file.

[point]QKEY

"OK? Quit Blender". This key closes Blender. "Blender quit" is displayed in the console if Blender is properly closed.

[point]ALT-CTRL+T

TimerMenu. This menu offers access to information about drawing speed. The results are displayed in the console.

[point]CTRL+U

"OK" Save User defaults". The current project (windows, objects, etc.), including UserMenu settings are written to the default file that will be loaded every time you start Blender or set it to defaults by pressing CTRL-X .

[point]CTRL+W

Write file. This key combination allows you to write the Blender file without opening a FileWindow.

[point]ALT+W

Write Videoscape file. Changes the window to a FileWindow.

[point]CTRL+X

Erase All. Everything (except the render buffer) is erased and released. The default scene is reloaded.

[subsection]EditMode HotKeys - General

[point]TABKEY / ALT+E

This button starts and stops EditMode.

[point]AKEY

Add Menu. In EditMode, this menu can only be used to add primitives of the same type like the Object that is in EditMode. If a different Object type is added Blender automatically leaves EditMode.

[point]BKEY

Border Select. In EditMode, this function only works on the vertices. It works as described in the previous section.

[point]BKEY-BKEY

Circle Select. If you press BKEY a second time after starting Border Select, Circle Select is invoked. This mode selects vertices with LeftMouse and deselects vertices with MiddleMouse. Use PAD_PLUS or PAD_MINUS to adjust the circle size. Leave Circle Select with RightMouse or ESC.

[point]NKEY

NumberMenu. In EditMode Mesh, Curve, Surface: The location of the active vertex is displayed.

[point]PKEY

seParate. All selected vertices, edges, faces and curves are removed from the EditMode and placed in a new Object. This operation is the opposite of Join (CTRL+J).

[point]CTRL+P

"Make Vertex Parent". Select 1 or 3 vertices from a Mesh, Curve or Surface. Now this Object becomes the Vertex Parent of the selected Objects. If only 1 vertex is selected, only the location of this vertex determines the Parent transformation; the rotation and dimensions of the Parent do not play a role here. If three vertices are selected, it is a 'normal' Parent relationship in which the 3 vertices determine the rotation and location of the Child together. This method produces interesting effects with Vertex Keys. In EditMode, other Objects can be selected with CTRL+RightMouse.

[point]CTRL+S

Shear. In EditMode this operation enables you to make selected forms 'slant'. This always works via the horizontal screen axis.

[point]UKEY

(For Font Objects: ALT+U) Reload Original Data. When starting EditMode, the original ObData block is saved. This option enables you to restore the previous situation. By continually leaving EditMode while working (TAB-TAB) you can refresh this 'undo buffer'.

[point]WKEY

Specials PopupMenu. A number of tools are included in this PopupMenu as an alternative to the EditButtons. This makes the buttons accessible as shortcuts, e.g. EditButtons->Subdivide is also 'WKEY, 1KEY'.

[point]SHIFT-D

Add Duplicate. The selected vertices (faces, curves, etc.) are copied. Grab mode starts immediately thereafter.

[point]SHIFT+W

Warp. Selected vertices can be bent into curves with this option. It can be used to convert a plane into a tube or even a sphere. The centre of the circle is the 3DCursor. The mid-line of the circle is determined by the horizontal dimensions of the selected vertices. When you start, everything is already bent 90 degrees. Moving the mouse up or down increases or decreases the extent to which warping is done. By zooming in/out of the 3Dwindow, you can specify the maximum degree of warping. The CTRL limitor increments warping in steps of 5 degrees.

[subsection]EditMode Mesh Hotkeys

[point]EKEY

Extrude Selected. "Extrude" in EditMode transforms all the selected edges to faces. If possible, the selected faces are also duplicated. Grab mode is started directly after this command is executed. #->$13

[point]FKEY

Make Edge/Face. If 2 vertices are selected, an edge is created. If 3 or 4 vertices are selected, a face is created.

[point]SHIFT+F

Fill selected. All selected vertices that are bound by edges and form a closed polygon are filled with triangular faces. Holes are automatically taken into account. This operation is 2D; various layers of polygons must be filled in succession.

[point]ALT+F

Beauty Fill. The edges of all the selected triangular faces are switched in such a way that equally sized faces are formed. This operation is 2D; various layers of polygons must be filled in succession. The Beauty Fill can be performed immediately after a Fill.

[point]HKEY

Hide Selected. All selected vertices and faces are temporarily hidden.

[point]SHIFT+H

Hide Not Selected: All non-selected vertices and faces are temporarily hidden.

[point]ALT+H

Reveal. All temporarily hidden vertices and faces are drawn again.

[point]LKEY

Select Linked. If you start with an unselected vertex near the mouse cursor, this vertex is selected, together with all vertices that share an edge with it.

[point]SHIFT+L

Deselect Linked. If you start with a selected vertex, this vertex is deselected, together with all vertices that share an edge with it.

[point]CTRL+L

Select Linked Selected. Starting with all selected vertices, all vertices connected to them are selected too.

[point]CTRL+N

Calculate Normals Outside. All normals from selected faces are recalcultated and consistently set in the same direction. An attempt is made to direct all normals 'outward'.

[point]SHIFT-CTRL+N

Calculate Normals Inside. All normals from selected faces are recalculated and consistently set in the same direction. An attempt is made to direct all normals 'inward'.

[point]CTRL+T

Make Triangles. All selected faces are converted to triangles.

[point]XKEY

Erase Selected. A PopupMenu offers the following options:

[point]YKEY

Split. This command 'splits' the selected part of a Mesh without deleting faces. The split parts are no longer bound by edges. Use this command to control smoothing. Since the split parts have vertices at the same position, selection with LKEY is recommended.

[subsection]EditMode Curve Hotkeys

[point]CKEY

Set the selected curves to cyclic or turn cyclic off. An individual curve is selected if at least one of the vertices is selected.

[point]EKEY

Extrude Curve. A vertex is added to the selected end of the curves. Grab mode is started immediately after this command is executed.

[point]FKEY

Add segment. A segment is added between two selected vertices at the end of two curves. These two curves are combined into 1 curve.

[point]HKEY

Toggle Handle align/free. Toggles the selected Bezier handles between free or aligned.

[point]SHIFT+H

Set Handle auto. The selected Bezier handles are converted to auto type.

[point]CTRL+H

Calculate Handles. The selected Bezier curves are calculated and all handles are assigned a type.

[point]LKEY

Select Linked. If you start with an non-selected vertex near the mouse cursor, this vertex is selected together with all the vertices of the same curve.

[point]SHIFT+L

Deselect Linked. If you start with a selected vertex, it is deselected together with all the vertices of the same curve.

[point]TKEY

Tilt mode. Specify an extra axis rotation, i.e. the tilt, for each vertex in a 3D curve.

[point]ALT+TKEY

Clear Tilt. Set all axis rotations of the selected vertices to zero.

[point]VKEY

Vector Handle. The selected Bezier handles are converted to vector type.

[point]WKEY

The special menu for curves appears:

  [images/CurveSpecialMenu.tga]

[point]XKEY

Erase Selected. A PopupMenu offers the following options:

[subsection]EditMode Font Hotkeys

A complete list of all key combinations for special characters can be found elsewhere in this manual. (Reference to text section of Curves and Surfaces chapter-cw-)

[point]SHIFT+TAB

The ASCII code for TAB.

[point]RIGHTARROWKEY

Move text cursor 1 position forward

[point]SHIFT+RIGHTARROWKEY

Move text cursor to the end of the line.

[point]LEFTARROWKEY

Move text cursor 1 position backwards.

[point]SHIFT+LEFTARROWKEY

Move text cursor to the start of the line

[point]DOWNARROWKEY

Move text cursor 1 line forward

[point]SHIFT+DOWNARROWKEY

Move text cursor to the end of the text.

[point]UPARROWKEY

Move text cursor 1 line back.

[point]SHIFT+UPARROWKEY

Move text cursor to the beginning of the text

[point]ALT+U

"Reload Original Data" (undo). When EditMode is started, the original text is saved. You can restore this original text with this option.

[point]ALT+V

Paste text. The text file "/tmp/.cutbuffer" is inserted at the cursor location.

[subsection]EditMode Surface Hotkeys

[point]CKEY

Toggle Cyclic menu. A PopupMenu asks if selected surfaces in the 'U' or the 'V' direction must be cyclic. If they were already cyclic, this mode is turned off.

[point]EKEY

Extrude Selected. This makes surfaces of all the selected curves, if possible. Only the edges of surfaces or loose curves are candidates for this operation. Grab mode is started immediately after this command is completed.

[point]FKEY

Add segment. A segment is added between two selected vertices at the ends of two curves. These two curves are combined into 1 curve.

[point]LKEY

Select Linked. If you start with an non-selected vertex near the mouse cursor, this vertex is selected together with all the vertices of the same curve or surface.

[point]SHIFT+L

Deselect Linked. If you start with a selected vertex, this vertex is deselected together with all vertices of the same curve or surface.

[point]SHIFT+R

Select Row. Starting with the last selected vertex, a complete row of vertices is selected in the 'U' or 'V' direction. Selecting "Select Row" a second time with the same vertex switches the 'U' or 'V' selection.

[point]WKEY

The special menu for curves appears:

  [images/CurveSpecialMenu.tga]

[point]XKEY

Erase Selected. A PopupMenu offers the following choices:

[subsection]Ika Hotkeys

[point]TABKEY

Turns the calculation of 'Inverse Kinematics' on or off.

[point]EKEY

Extrude Ika. An extra Limb is added to the selected Ikas. Grab mode is started immediately thereafter.

[point]CTRL+K

Make sKeleton. A Skeleton is created (anew) in the active Ika Object. All selected Ikas and Empty Objects become part of the Skeleton. To indicate that an Ika has a Skeleton, the 'end-effector' is now drawn in blue (instead of yellow).

[point]CTRL+P

Make Parent. If the Parent is an Ika, a PopupMenu offers three options:

[subsection]VertexPaint Hotkeys

[point]SHIFT+K

All vertex colours are erased; they are changed to the current drawing colour.

[point]UKEY

Undo. This undo is 'real'. Pressing Undo twice returns you to the previous situation.

[point]WKEY

"Shared Vertexcol": The colours of all faces that share vertices are blended.

[subsection]FaceSelect Hotkeys

[point]TAB

Switches to EditMode, selections made here will show up when switching back to FaceSelectMode with TAB .

[point]AKEY

Selects all faces.

[point]BKEY

Border select.

[point]RKEY

Calls a menu allowing to rotate the UV coordinates or the VertexCol.

[point]UKEY

Calls the "UV Calculation" menu. The following modes can the applied to the selected faces:
-cw- Last modified: Tue Oct 24 11:53:07 CEST 2000 /* */